Precision reproduction on dairy cattle
The technology is now an days an important tool for many fields. A good use of technology is capable of helping dairy farmers to produce more and better, hence increase the incomes. This good use is described as precision dairy farming. Reproduction is one of the most important areas in the farm. Dairy farmers need to have the cows becoming pregnant and calving in order to keep producing and selling milk. A smart use of monitoring indexes on reproductive management can lead to the greater rates. One of the most important rates is pregnancy rate (PR). There are many factors that can influence PR in dairy cows. Some of this factors are body condition score (BCS) at calving, loss of BCS after calving, infections and uterine involution, anovular condition, heat stress, estrous detection efficiency and use of manipulation of estrous cycle using hormones, as in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Currently there are many studies in this topics with alternatives to improve the herd reproductive management and work around these problems that will be suggested in this review. Some of this alternatives are: the intensification of reproductive management to increase number of animals inseminated (service rate - SR); use of FTAI protocols to synchronize cows and increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), prevent health problems and a good management of nutrition especially during transition period. Furthermore, all of this options are affordable, when the incomes that they provided are taking in consideration.